Soviet Union Lacking In Socialism

Soviet Russia was not socialist because it lacked the two primary features of socialism.
The two main features or socialism are (1) social ownership wherein each member of society has a relatively equal share of social wealth and (2) industrial democracy in which workers participate in decision-making processes, either directly or though elected delegates.
I'm reading Anthony Crosland's "The Future of Socialism." A lot of his observations are right. However, he keeps saying that exploitation happens under both private and public ownership and that the alienation of workers from the control of industry also occurs under both public and private ownership. By which he seems to be saying that social ownership isn't necessarily superior to private ownership. I get what he's saying, but I think he is making a blunder. He would do well to look more into libertarian socialist ideas.

Soviet Russia and Cuba are simply NOT socialist in my estimation. Socialism entails social/societal ownership of the means of production, NOT government ownership. Government ownership can be social ownership if the society is sufficiently democratic in a participatory sense, on the one hand, and the wealth (surplus value) is distributed to the citizens in an egalitarian fashion. Thus, the Lange-Lerner model and the "RICH economy" proposal are instances or government ownership that are socialist. However, if government is a clique and a group of oligarchs and bureaucrats control the distribution of wealth, as was the case in Soviet Russia, then you have government ownership without social ownership.

Soviet Russia was not socialist but merely statist. The egalitarian distribution of wealth is necessary for society to be socialist. You can have government ownership of industry without this. Furthermore, socialism entails industrial democracy. Leninist/Stalinist states lacked this feature too. The workers were not participants in the decision-making processes in their industries.

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